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Metals, nonmetals, and metalloids of the periodic table

The elements of the periodic table can be classified into three groups: metals, nonmetals, and metalloids. Most of the periodic table is made up of metals, which are arranged as follows:

  • The metals of group 1 (beginning with lithium) and 2 (beginning with beryllium), which are the group of alkaline and alkaline earth metals respectively.
  • Then come the transition metals, from group 3 (starting with scandium) to group 12 (starting with zinc).
  • Metals are also considered elements from aluminum, and the rest of the elements of its group (gallium, indium and thallium), as well as those of the next group, tin and lead. From the next group only bismuth and finally, from the next group only polonium.

As metalloids are considered: boron, silicon, germanium, arsenic, antimony and tellurium. And finally, the non-metals, the rest in which they are found: carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus, in the oxygen group, only oxygen itself, sulfur and selenium, the entire group of halogens and finally the group of noble gases.

properties of metals

Metals are good conductors of heat and electricity, are malleable (meaning they can be layered) and ductile (meaning they can form wires). Most metals are solid at room temperature, with a characteristic silvery sheen (except mercury, which is liquid).

As for the appearance, it is shiny, with its own metallic characteristic. They corrode and oxidize both in the air and in seawater. High density, except for lithium, potassium and sodium. High melting points and easy to lose electrons.

Properties of non-metals

Nonmetals are poor conductors of heat and electricity, and are neither malleable nor ductile. Many of the nonmetals are gases at room temperature.

They do not have the characteristic shine of metals, they are usually brittle and less dense than metals, just as their melting points are low compared to metals. They possess the ability to gain electrons in chemical reactions.

Properties of metalloids or semimetals

The metalloids are intermediate in their properties. In their physical properties, they are more like nonmetals, but under certain circumstances, several of them can be made to conduct electricity by calling them semiconductors. Semiconductors are extremely important in computers and other electronic devices. They can gain or lose electrons.

Bonds between metals and non-metals

The types of bonds that can occur between elements to form compounds are mainly two: covalent and ionic bonds. When covalent bonds take place, atoms share electrons to produce neutral molecules. Instead, when ionic bonds take place, there is a transfer of electrons. The covalent bond, where molecules occur, is typical of non-metals between them, while ionic bonds take place between metallic and non-metallic elements.

According to this, ionic compounds will be formed by elements on the right that are on the left and elements that are on the right. Once united, they form a crystal lattice whose attractive forces are strong, hence their high melting points. Furthermore, they are hard, rigid and brittle. Being solid they do not conduct electricity because the electrons do not have mobility, however, they do have conductivity when they are molten because they allow this mobility and even when they are dissolved in water.